Below you will find a list of betta species and their groups. Click on the links within each group and sub-group to learn more about each type.
Generally, betta fish fall into two categories: the bubblensters and the mouthbrooders.
Habitat: They live in stagnant waters such as ponds, ditches, lakes, overflow pools and river backwaters.
Behavior: Males create bubblenests to support eggs. The female can produce up to 500 eggs in one spawning, depending on the species.
Size: 1.5 inches to 3 inches in length
Life Span: 2-3 years on average
Water: Distinct groups require different conditions. Members of the splendens group thrive in neutral water with moderate calcium-magnesium hardness, whereas members of the coccina and waseri groups prefer soft, acidic water conditions.
Water Temperature: While spawning, the temperature should remain at 80 degrees Fahrenheit and should be checked frequently to sustain that temperature.
The splendens group is native to Thailand, Malay Peninsula and parts of Molluca, Sumatra and Borneo. Although Borneo is not a natural occurrence, it was introduced to this country through human intervention.For further, specific information, see the following pages:
Betta sp. Mahachai
A larger variety of Betta fish, they grow to nearly 5 inches in length. The two varieties are B. simorum and Betta bellica. They are generally native to the Malay Peninsula and Melaka Strait.
These fish are a group of small and slender Betta species, which originated in the southern Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and northern Borneo. This group consists of B. coccina, B. livida, B. brownorum, B. rutilans, B. Persephone, B. miniopinna, B. tussyae and B. burdigala.
Habitat: They live in flowing streams in hilly areas or lowland swamps. Some enjoy limestone-rich regions.
Behavior: Adapting to flowing water, males developed a “bubble cavity” (throat), which holds the fry in a “nest” until they are developed and large enough to withstand the pressure of the moving water.
Size: 1.5 inches to 5 inches in length
Life Span: 2-3 years on average
Water: Mouthbrooders prefer covered tanks with a fairly neutral pH of 6.5-7.5. They also enjoy relatively hard water and thrive with many live, rooted and surface plants in the aquarium.
Water Temperature: While spawning, the temperature should remain between 68-74 degrees Fahrenheit with a submersible heater.
The Picta group features caudal and anal fins that have dark margins and a gill cover that is iridescent. The species has 21-26 anal fin rays, 27-30 lateral scales, 27-29 vertebrae and 5-6 dorsal scales. This group includes B. picta, B. taeniata, B. falx, B. simplex, B. edithae and B. prima who are all characterized as mouthbrooders who display these traits.
Mostly indigenous to the flowing waters of Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Indo-China and Borneo, this group of fish has a rather large head and most times is greenish-blue. It includes the species: B. pugnax, B. pulchra, B. schalleri, B. breviobesus, B. enisae, B. fusca and B. lehi.
Group The Betta Waseri Group naturally inhabits southern Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo and consists of: B. waseri, B. tomi, B. spilotogena, B. pi, B. renata, B. hipposideros, B. anabatoides, and B. chloropharynx. They have been nicknamed the Big Yellow Mouthbrooders. They are about 2.5 inches in length, although some are less or a bit more. Each group is known for its distinctive black markings.
Restricted to the country of Borneo, the Akarensis Group includes: B. akarensis, B. balunga, B. chini, B. pinguis and possibly two other species not yet named.
The Betta foerschi group are a beautiful species, which consists of: B. foerschi, B. strohi, B. rubra and a currently unnamed class.
Probably the most beautiful of the mouthbrooders, the Albimarginata group consists of B. albimarginata and B. channoides. They differ from other Betta fish in that their anal fin has more spines (9-12) than the normal 0-4. They also have fewer rays (11-13) than the normal 18-32. The identification process for this group is still in process; therefore, there might be four or more species added in time.
A rather plain species of Betta fish, the group includes: B. patoti, B. unimaculata, B. ocellata, B. macrostoma and two to four species, which are currently unnamed.
“Other” Patoti Populations